Durability and elemental migration

Verifying compliance to international and industry standards

A comprehensive range of durability analysis and testing is available to clients to ensure that glass used for a variety of applications offers the appropriate level of chemical resistance and meets all required standards.

Durability analysis involves determining the environmental and chemical resistance of a product through exposure to a range of acids, bases, water or other simulants. The analysis determines whether, and quantifies, any leaching from the glass occurs - whether it be a glass container, food surface or other product.

This is particularly important for chemically sensitive products, such as parenteral pharmaceuticals, but is also important to ensure the safety of both packaging and preparatory surfaces and vessels for foods and drinks. Testing is available for all types of glass composition, including the most common soda-lime-silicate (SLS) and borosilicate glasses.

Testing can be provided for both 'whole article' (i.e. intact sample) or 'grains' (homogenous, crushed, samples) for a range of durability applications. Tests available include:

Hydrolytic resistance

Durability analysis for glass resistance to water against a range of international standards, including:

  • BS 3473-4, ISO 4802 - Chemical resistance of glass used in the production of laboratory glassware.Method for determination of hydrolytic resistance of the interior surfaces of glass containers;
  • BS 3473-2, ISO 719 - Chemical resistance of glass used in the production of laboratory glassware. Method for determination of hydrolytic resistance of glass grains at 98°C;
  • DIN ISO 719 - Glass - Hydrolytic resistance of glass grains at 98 degrees C - Method of test and classification; (Previously DIN 12111 - Grain method for determination of the hydrolytic resistance of glass as a material at 98°C and Classification of glass into hydrolytic classes, now replaced by above)
  • BS 3473-3, ISO 720 - Chemical resistance of glass used in the production of laboratory glassware. Method for determination of hydrolytic resistance of glass grains at 121°C;
  • DIN ISO 720 - Glass - Hydrolytic resistance of glass grains at 121 degrees C - Method of test and classification;(Previously DIN 28817 - Grain Method For Determination of the Hydrolytic Resistance of Glass as a Material At 121 °C, now replace by above)
  • GOST 13905 - Russian Water Resistance Test.

Alkali resistance

Durability for glass resistance to alkali substances for a range of international standards, including:

  • BS 3473-1, ISO 695 - Chemical resistance of glass used in the production of laboratory glasswareMethod for determination of resistance of glass to attack by a boiling aqueous solution of mixed alkali;
  • DIN 52322 - Glass; resistance to attack by a boiling aqueous solution of mixed alkali; method of test and classification;

Acid resistance

Durability for glass resistance to acidic substances for a range of international standards, including:

  • DIN 12116 - Resistance to attack by a boiling aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid - Method of test and classification;
  • BS 3473-5, ISO 1776 - Chemical resistance of glass used in the production of laboratory glasswareMethod for determination of resistance of glass to attack by 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid at 100°C.

Food contact material (FCM) analysis

A range of food simulants, such as acetic and citric acids, can be used to determine the performance of a glass product or container.

A full range of chemical analyses to ensure that packaging is fit-for-purpose and meets all applicable standards, including food contact testing and heavy metal release.

Heavy metals release

Accredited test methods for the analysis of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) that may leach from glass products, containers and surfaces. Analysis is available for the migration of a range of elements and can be tailored with specific calibration programmes to meet individual client requirements.

Analysis includes a range of international standards:

  • ASTM C927-80 - Standard Test Method for Lead and Cadmium Extracted from the Lip and Rim Area of Glass Tumblers Externally Decorated with Ceramic Glass Enamels;
  • ISO 7086 - Glass hollowware in contact with food - Release of lead and cadmium
  • BS EN 1388 - Materials and articles in contact with foodstuffs. Silicate surfaces.(Part 1: Ceramic, Part 2: Non ceramic);
  • BS 6748 - Specification for limits of metal release from ceramic ware, glassware, glass ceramic ware and vitreous enamel ware;
  • AOAC 973.32 - Lead and Cadmium Extracted from Ceramicware Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Method;
  • AOAC 973.82 - Lead and Cadmium Extracted from Ceramicware Alternate Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Method.

Packaging regulations

A range of heavy metals are analysis to determine concentration within the glass and availability through release (leaching) from the glass surface. Analysis is typically provided for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg) and Hexavalent Chromium VI (CrVI), but a wide range of trace elements and custom matrices can be provided to meet individual requirements.

Pharmacopoeial testing

Please see our pharmacopoeial verification page for full details of the range of pharmacopoeia tests provided.


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